Thus, karate was indigenous to Okinawa and had centuries of development and evolution before it was introduced to Japan. At the time of development, Okinawa was a separate nation with close ties to China. Okinawa was conquered by Japanese samurai in the 17th century, but karate was kept secret from the Japanese for decades.
2. Kyudo (弓道) (Japanese Archery)
|Yumi sho for close quarters|
|Oriental bridge - colored pencil |
sketch by Hausel, Soke
|Yumi (Japanese bow).|
3. Kenjutsu (剣術), Iaidō (居合道); Battōjutsu (抜刀術)
|Iaido - Japanese sword|
Wikipedia reports styles of iaidō include: Muso Jikiden Eishin-Ryu, Muso Shinden Ryu, Mugai-Ryu, Jikyo-Ryu, Suio-Ryu, Motobu Udundi (Okinawan), Shindō Munen-ryu, Shinkage-ryū, Hōki-ryū, Tatsumi-ryū, Tamiya-ryū, Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, Takenouchi-ryū, Eishin-ryū, and Shinjo-ryū.
Sword testing, known as tameshigiri was designed to test the blade’s sharpness and the practitioner’s abilities to cut materials. Today, we often see cuts of matting or straw on a vertical pole. In the past, it was not uncommon for Japanese to test on cadavers of executed criminals. Iaido is one of many samurai or pechin arts. Some of the many other samurai arts include traditional jujutsu, tessenjutsu, hojojutsu, hanbojutsu, naginatajutsu, kenjutsu, kendo and sojutsu. Such old koryu arts all employ considerable tradition and ceremony.
|Training in kenjutsu - the art of the sword.|
Toide, originally known on Okinawa as Goten-Te (palace hand), is also known as Motobu-Ryu Toide and Motobu Udun Di (Motobu's royal-place hand), was mainly taught to Okinawan martial artists. The original system includes traditional dance, throws and weapons. The Juko-Ryu Aiki Inyo Toide of Juko Kai International, is one of the more powerful martial arts in the world and exhibits similarities to Motobu-Ryu Toide and Seidokan Toide of Okinawa, but does not include O-dori (dance) and also incorporates Shitai Kori along with weapons such as katana (sword), yari (spear), naginata (pole arm) and bo (staff).
5. Jujutsu (柔術)
|Pressure point attacks employed in jujutsu are also found in many other|
martial arts including karate, judo, aikido, etc.
|Training in hojojutsu - prisoner restraints. Casper dojo|
|Classical restraint used in jujutsu employing arm bar and|
wrist lock. Arizona Hombu photo.
Special training in jujutsu - use of expandable baton. University of
|Soke Hausel teaches taiotoshi (body leg drop) at an outdoor clinic in Utah|
6. Okinawan Kobudo (沖縄古武道)
Okinawan kobudo - the art of the peasant tool weapons. Today, the kobudo arts are blended with many of the Okinawan karate arts, in particular with Shorin-Ryu Karate. Kobudo may have developed following a proclamation by Okinawan King Shoshin in 1480 AD that banned bladed weapons on the island nation. So, some Okinawans learned to use tools of trade for weapons. Farmers experimented with bo (6-foot staff) used to transport goods, fishermen used rope and rocks to produce suruchin and merchants used rice grinder handles & horse bridles to develop tonfa while stirrups & horseshoes became tekko.
Traditional Okinawan weapons are numerous and include tuja (3-prong spear), nunchaku, sansetsukun (aka sanbon nunchaku) or 3-sectional staff, tonfa (side-handle baton), sai (fork-like weapon), manji no sai (sai with one prong directed in opposite direction), nuntei-bo (bo with manji no sai attached to one end), kama (sickle), kusarigama (kama with attached chain and weight), nitanbo (two sticks), bo or rokushaku bo (staff), hasshaku bo (8-shaku staff), kyushaku bo (9 shaku staff), jo (4 shaku staff), sanjaku bo or hanbo (3-shaku staff), kubotan (short stick), eku (oar), ra-ke (rake), kuwa (hoe), hari (fish hooks), nireki (hand rakes), surichin (weighted rope or chain), tinbe (short spear or machete with leather shield), tetsubo, suruji, tekko (horse stirrups), gekiguan (stick with weighted chain or rope attached to one end), techu (short stick or metal rod with center ring), take no bo (cane), uchi bo (two rods of unequal length attached by rope or chain), kasa(umbrella), ogi (fan), kanzashi (hairpin), kisiru (tobacco pipe), mame (dried beans or pebbles for throwing), kaki (firearms) & more. At the Arizona Hombu, members learn traditional weapons including some everyday tools in our homes, cars and office.
7. Gung Fu (功夫)
Gung Fu, also known as Kung Fu and Wushu. Legend states a Buddhist monk named Bodhidharma traveled from India to northern Henan province of China where he taught Zen at the Shaolin Temple around 525 AD. When Bodhidharma arrived at Shaolin-si (small forest temple), he began lectures but found most monks unfit & lazy. Bodhidharma realized the solution was to improve physical conditioning of the monks in order to improve their minds; thus, he began teaching physical exercises with meditation known as 'Shi Po Lohan Sho' (18 hands of Lohan) reputed to be a fighting system. The blending of Lohan with Zen evolved into the first martial art. To be a martial 'art' there must be intrinsic value for the spirit, body and soul.
|Sojutsu - training with yari (spear)|
Sojutsu is the art of the spear while naginata is the art of the pole arm. Both of these Japanese arts are very traditional and it is rare to find anyone in North America that teaches these. Sojutsu is taught at few schools in North America, but offered in some schools in Japan. Naginata is much the same, but there are naginata associations.
Ninjutsu (忍術), sometimes used interchangeably with the modern term ninpō (忍法)
10. Hanbojutsu (半棒)
Some of those reading this blog may wonder about MMA. MMA is not a traditional martial art and does not meet the true definition of martial arts. So, it is not considered.